2022 PES Technical Reports

Modeling of Generator Controls for Coordinating Generator Relays (TR95)

Overview: This is a joint work with the Excitation Systems and Controls Subcommittee (ESCS) of the Energy Development and Power Generation Committee (EDPG) and the Power Systems Dynamic Performance Committee (PSDP) to improve cross discipline understanding. Create guidelines that can be used by planning and protection engineers to perform coordination checks of the timing and sensitivity of protective elements with generator control characteristics and settings while maintaining adequate protection of the generating system equipment. Improve the modeling of the dynamic response of generators and the characteristics of generator excitation control systems to disturbances and stressed system conditions. Improve the modeling of protective relays in power dynamic stability modeling software. Define cases and parameters that may be used for the purpose of ensuring coordination of controls with generator protective relays especially under dynamic conditions.

Primary CommitteePower System Relaying and Control Committee (PSRC)


Enabling Computing Techniques for Wide-Area Power System Applications (TR94)

Overview: Power systems are undergoing unprecedented changes. The replacement of large conventional power plants with dispersed renewable power generators connected to both transmission and distribution grids, changes in the consumption of energy, the expectation of improved system security and resiliency and increasing reliance on automated systems all have a considerable impact on the day-to-day operation of the electrical grid.

Increasing uncertainty levels are one of the most tangible consequences of these changes: the randomness of renewable energy sources, the complex electricity market price dynamics and the uncertain load behavior represent some of the most challenging issues to be addressed by system operators. These complex and correlated uncertainties directly affect real-time grid operation, which, due to the reduction of power system inertia caused by the replacement of large rotating generators with distributed inverter-based renewable power generators, is becoming more vulnerable to dynamic perturbations.

Moreover, the data streaming acquired by the distributed grid sensors cannot provide power system operators, who must perform intensive numerical computations aimed at enhancing situational awareness, with the necessary measures and alerts to adjust the system to, e.g., prevent severe grid perturbations or mitigate the impacts of multiple contingencies.

To overcome these limitations, researchers and designers of high-performance power system computing systems are revisiting numerous design issues and assumptions pertaining to scale, reliability, heterogeneity and manageability of real-time power system monitoring, protection and control systems. In this context, this technical report will analyze the most promising enabling technologies, which include pervasive communication systems based on resilient and self-healing architectures, wide-area monitoring systems based on synchronized measurement devices, data mining-based techniques for knowledge discovery from sensors data-streams and computational intelligence-based tools for real-time decision making. The advances in these technologies for the development of enhanced power system operations tools include Wide Area Monitoring Protection and Control Systems (WAMPACs), which enable system-wide data processing for the purpose of improving situational awareness, mitigating the impacts of large disturbances and reducing the probability of catastrophic events. 

Primary CommitteePower System Operation, Planning and Economics Committee (PSOPE)


Importance of T&D Grid Modernization to Mitigate Impacts from and Adapt to Climate Change (TR93)

Overview: The electric industry is undergoing one of its most dramatic transformations in a century driven by the need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels for generation, integrate clean energy technologies, and adapt to the realities of climate change. The grid is also being increasingly tested by weather events exacerbated by climate change that bring extreme weather conditions with greater frequency and intensity, as well as by human-made threats like physical and cyber-attacks. These chronic climate stressors and increases in building cooling and heating loads require that the grid is adequately engineered to respond. To achieve aggressive decarbonization goals, the electric power sector will need to re-think how to plan, design, regulate, and operate the electric grid. This technical report identifies efforts of the power sector to modernize the grid and combat climate change. It highlights the importance of T&D grid modernization to mitigate impacts from and adapt to climate change. It helps to frame, inform, and support the industry’s activities and investment priorities to pursue the decarbonization of the electric power sector.

Primary CommitteeIndustry Technical Support Leadership Committee (ITSLC)

Announcement on the release of this technical report


Practical Adoption of Cloud Computing in Power Systems – Drivers, Challenges, Guidance, and Real-world Use Cases (TR92)

Overview: This report explains why cloud computing supports a variety of power system businesses and summarizes the latest cloud adoption use cases in the power industry. It includes the benefits and risks of moving to the cloud while suggesting risk mitigation strategies at the same time. It also provides valuable guidelines and suggestions for power industry professionals who are considering cloud solutions yet are hesitant about the execution strategies. Based on extensive discussions and experience sharing among task force participants, including grid operators, utility companies, software vendors, and cloud providers, the task force decided to let this document focus on some of the most commonly seen concerns over the cloud, such as cost, service model selection and security control. The task force attempts to address these concerns through case analysis and the best practices we learned from both cloud providers and leading cloud users in the industry. Moreover, this report also investigates other factors that discourage electric utilities from moving to the cloud and seeks corresponding solutions for them. Through multiple use cases and instructions summarized in this report, power industry practitioners are likely to get help for the design or selection of their cloud solutions. Besides, power system software vendors will learn from this report how to make their application products better adapt to the cloud computing environment. Last but not the least, the encompassed work and discussion could provide useful references for the development of NERC guidelines and standards relevant to cloud adoption in the industry. Though a list of terms and definitions are included in the appendix, having a basic understanding of cloud technology and a moderate grasp of some fundamental concepts about cloud adoption is a prerequisite for the readers to comprehend this report.

Primary CommitteeAnalytic Methods for Power Systems Committee (AMPS)


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